Groundwater data: Out of sight, out of mind?

By Mary Kruk

March 21, 2022

Most fresh surface water begins as groundwater. Groundwater feeds springs, rivers, lakes and wetlands and seeps into the ocean. Groundwater moderates the levels, temperature and quality of these surface water ecosystems, providing critical habitat for fish, bugs, and riparian plants.

How many communities rely on groundwater?

About 70% of the food grown globally relies on groundwater, either directly (roughly 40%) or indirectly, when groundwater contributes base flow to surface water.

In addition to agriculture uses, many people in Canada depend on groundwater as their main water supply. Environment Canada reports that one-third of Canada’s population relies on groundwater for everyday use, ranging from 21% in Alberta to 100% in Prince Edward Island.

The majority of people relying on groundwater for drinking water live in rural areas where private wells are a reliable and affordable water supply. Others live in small communities where groundwater is the main source for municipal water supply systems.

Addressing data gaps

Monitoring and assessment of Canada’s groundwater is imperative now more than ever as reliance on groundwater increases with changes in climate and extended drought periods.

In Canada, groundwater quality data is collected across different monitoring programs, sectors and jurisdictions. However, it can be difficult to aggregate and appropriately interpret water quality data from different sources due to varying methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting water monitoring results.

DataStream has been actively working to address this challenge since it first launched in 2016. To date, more than 17 million unique surface water quality observations have been shared by over 200 different monitoring groups, including governments, communities and research programs.

Now, we are working to adapt DataStream’s open data schema to accommodate the unique needs of groundwater quality data and align with other national groundwater data initiatives, such as the Groundwater Information Network.

A sustainable future

Open sharing of groundwater quality data will help Canada report on important UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators, such as progress on improving ambient water quality in surface water and groundwater ( SDG target 6.3.2 ). To date, tracking on this indicator in Canada has been limited to surface water only.

Ensuring that data on groundwater quality is accessible, both now and into the future, is a critical step towards better understanding, using and protecting this essential freshwater source.

If you are collecting groundwater quality data and would like to be involved in testing DataStream’s groundwater data template, we would love to hear from you. Contact us at

Mary Kruk, Water Data Specialist, smiling with a blue and white cap and mountain and stream in the background.

About the Author

Mary Kruk joined the Gordon Foundation in 2020 as a Water Data Specialist with DataStream. In addition to working directly with data stewards to bring their data online, Mary is currently leading DataStream’s work to include groundwater quality data. Mary is based in Calgary and can be reached at

Header photo by Sreyasvalsan, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

Graphic of isotopes and fingerprint in a water drop --- Graphique des isotopes et des empreintes digitales dans une goutte d'eau

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